Boulevard of Broken theories refers to a song performed by the band Green Day. Whilst looking up the meaning of this phrase, I found this definition on wikianswer (Zarama, n.d.) “it means a lot of dreams you thought have and have never came true”. I feel that his is a great way of looking at my blog, I am looking at a lot of theories that psychologists which have not been implemented into mainstream education. This blog is going to analyse how these theories can be rekindled and how they can be executed in a classrooms in the 21st century.
This is the first of triad of blogs, which will be looking into such theories. The first theory I will analyse is the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation (Jones, 2009).
The MUSIC model of academic motivation is a collaboration of motivational theories created by Jones (2009). According to Jones (2009) the MUSIC model can increase motivation in education using 5 components. These 5 components are eMpowerment, Usefulness, Success, Interest and Caring. Jones (2009) found that when a teacher uses at least one of these techniques, children learning might be enhanced. How this occurs is shown in figure 1.
Fig 1. How the MUSIC theory increases students learning.
According to Jones (2009), empowerment is the amount of control that students perceive they have some power over some of their own learning. According to Jones (2009) when children learn autonomously there motivation can be increased which can lead to increased learning.
Jones (2009) already has looked at how to apply empowerment into a regular classroom. Such as allowing choosing topics that which they want to study (Ryan & La Guardia, 1999), giving children a chance to express there own opinions while the teacher considers them (Reeve, 1996), giving control of lesson pace to the students (Roblyer, 1999), and allow students to help develop and implement class activities. Technology has a important role in applying these ideas into a 21st classroom. Due to the introduction of the smartboard and projector this has allowed presentations to become more accessible in classrooms.
The second component of motivation under MUSIC is whether information is useful in future goals or career prospects. Simons et al., (2004) found when goals are more distant in the future the students create long-term behavioural plans to obtain these goals. These long-term behavioural plans increase motivation (Jones, 2009).
According to (Jones, 2009) two things must be done to schools in the future. Firstly children should be able to choose which subjects they want to study from an early age and secondly, career options classes should be available by children at an early age. An Internet poll (Should children be allowed to decide the subjects taught in schools?, n.d.) 75% of unknown voters said yes when asked the question “should children be allowed to decide the subject taught in school”. There are many great websites, which help young people plan out what jobs they wish to get into in the future, (Careers advice, 2012). However the main change must the school system itself.
According to Jones (2009) success is based on your self-perceptions of competence. Self-perception of competence is the belief a person has his or her own abilities. The centre to many motivation theories has been the Self-perceptions of competence (Jones, 2009). Self-perception of competence is the belief you have in your own abilities. According to Jones (2009) there are many theories behind motivation but the “conceptual core of the achievement motivation literature” (Elliot & Dweck, 2005b, p. 5).
For teachers to coordinate success in a 21st century is to make sure that all instructions by teachers should be clear and understandable. If children cannot understand the instructions they are less likely to understand what they are working on. Thus this could increase the difficulty of work done by students, causing the student to become anxious. According to Jones (2009) this is an example of flow theory. (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) Flow theory is for optimum performance all work should be at the same difficulty level as the student current level otherwise they feel bored or anxious. Using the current testing systems such as GCSE’s, it is very hard to make sure that everyone has work. This is because everyone sits the same exam (Bremner (2008). To solve this teachers may have to help not only struggling students but also make sure excelling students are given harder/ more work. Innovations in technology are a useful tool in averting this problem. This is due to the amount of recourses that can be found on the internet. In these recourses are techniques and assignments to help children at each end of the spectrum.
Interest is to make sure a class is motivational the lesson should be interesting (Jones, 2009). According to Schraw & Lehman (2001) there are two types of interest: situational and personal interest. Situational interest is when a unique characteristic has an appealing effect on students, during an interaction with the task for a short amount of time (Chen and Darst, 2001). Personal interest is enduring personal interest in a topic specific (Schraw & Lehman, 2001). Both technology, through power point presentations using smart board and traditional methods of teaching such as field trips are key in emerging the children into education allowing them to become situational interested. Technology is not essential in creating an interesting lesson, traditional can be just as engaging.
As Jones (2009) said caring shouldn’t mean that teachers should be friends with their students however that they should care about what the children are learning and the student’s education in general. This is where the 21st century classroom may have a negative factor. According to disadvantages of Online Learning (2011) eLearning has decreased the amount of social interaction the children have. Caring is needed to keep children motivated thus technology cannot be completely over hall the original classroom. Technology should be a backbone to teaching, which teachers can use to support the other stages of MUSIC.
Therefore, MUSIC is an example of a forgotten theory, which should be implemented into the 21st century classroom. Hopefully, a transition can occur due to the introduction of technology. Technology could make it easier for teachers, following the guidelines of MUSIC, to create more autonomously motivated pupils.
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Jones, B. D. (2009). Motivating students to engage in learning: The MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21(2), 272-285.
Ryan, R. M., & La Guardia, J. (1999). Achievement motivation within a pressured society: Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to learn and the politics of school reform. In T. Urdan (Ed.), Advances in motivation and achievement, volume II (pp. 45-85). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
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Elliot, A. J., & Dweck, C. S. (2005b). Competence and motivation. In A. J. Elliot, & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 3-12). New York: Guilford.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial.
Bremner, S. (2008). Some thoughts on teaching a mixed ability class. Scottish Languages Review, (18), 1-10.
Chen, A., & Darst, P. W. (2001). Situational interest in physical education: A function of learning task design. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(2), 150-164.
Schraw, G., & Lehman, S. (2001). Situational interest: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 13(1), 23-52.
The Disadvantages of Online Learning. (2011). In Elearning-companion. Retrieved October 11, 2013, from http://www.elearning-companion.com/disadvantages-of-online-learning.html